Do vaccines worsen the infection with the Corona virus?

Do vaccines worsen the infection with the Corona virus?

After misinformation about nanoparticles, mortality and adverse effects, trial stages or association with strokes, opponents of vaccines against Covid-19 continue to spread new misleading arguments.

The most recent development relates to a rare but already noticeable immune mechanism with certain vaccines: the facilitation of infection with antibodies. Since they discovered its existence, anti-vaccines Claiming that vaccines against Covid-19 do not only protect their hosts, bone worsening of their health, which would explain, they say, the unprecedented wave of pollution in Europe. But these claims are not based on any scientific observation.

What are facilitating antibodies?

Facilitating antibodies are antibodies that, rather than neutralizing the virus, facilitate its replication and, accordingly, infection of new cells. Not unlike the neutralizing antibodies normally made by the human immune system. Once the B lymphocytes are produced, the antibodies will identify and physically attach to the nearby coronaviruses, by attaching themselves to a surface protein (spicol, or spiky protein). Nothing out of the ordinary yet. These antibodies then recruit immune cells that will devour the virus to destroy it.

By binding to the virus, the antibodies perform the function of “recruiting” immune cells, which will eliminate the virus

Conventionally, virus-bound antibodies ‘stick’ to macrophages via their receptor (called FcγR), and phagocytes ‘engulf’ and ‘digest’ everything (these are the phases of endocytosis and lysis). However, in the case of infection facilitated by antibodies, at the time of cellular endocytosis, the neutralizing chemical bond between the antibody and freon may be brittle and “broken”; The virion then “escapes” and can then infect macrophages, where they multiply, as in a Trojan horse.

Infection can also be facilitated by an overactive immune reaction due to antibodies. By binding to the virus, these cells have the function of “recruiting” immune cells, which will destroy the virus. But this recruitment sometimes causes a chain reaction of immune cells and severe inflammation that turns against the body. Respiratory pathogens often drive this activation pathway.

Antibody facilitation occurs mainly during a second viral infection, in people who are already infected but encounter a different strain than the first virus they encountered. Exposure to a nearly identical virus but different surface proteins impairs the neutralizing ability of the antibodies.

Facilitated background infections of some human coronaviruses, including SARS-CoV-1, the virus responsible for the SARS pandemic in 2003, have been documented. But the vast majority of known cases involve the dengue virus.

Example Dengvaxia in the Philippines

This facilitator infection can be dangerous and upset the balance of risks and benefits of the vaccine to the point of revocation of its marketing authorization. This is what happened to the dengue vaccine (Dengvaxia) developed by Sanofi-Pasteur. It was suspended in December 2017 in the Philippines, after the lab warned the government that children who had never contracted the disease were at particular risk if they encountered the virus after vaccination, rather than being protected from it. Dengue virus has five different serotypes, and it is common for a second natural infection with a different serotype to cause a more serious infection due to insufficient neutralization of antibodies. This is the mechanism observed with Dengvaxia.

a story: This article is reserved for our subscribers Vaccine adverse effects: reactions to historical alerts, confirmed or not

It is not easy to create a balance sheet for a case. Nineteen dengue deaths were recorded in vaccinated minors, with no association with the medically proven vaccine. Philippine authorities, who have taken legal action against Sanofi, say they are investigating more than six hundred deaths that could have been directly caused by the vaccine. However, the figure, methods and technical explanations given by the authorities did not convince the Philippine medical community or the dengue experts.

Occasionally, infection has been facilitated by vaccines that target other viruses:

  • Some of the older measles vaccines that use an inactivated version of the virus sometimes caused a more serious infection after vaccination. They are no longer used and have been replaced by those using a weakened but live version of the virus.
  • A vaccine developed in the 1960s against respiratory syncytial virus, the most common cause of lung infections in infants, had the same problems as the inactivated virus. Its development stopped and did not bear fruit.

The rare facilities for antibody infection reported in the history of vaccinology are often due to inactivated or even attenuated virus vaccines, as in the case of Dengvaxia.

What about COVID-19 and its vaccines?

Facilitator infection has already been suspected in some cases of Covid-19. The latest work done by a Chinese team was published in the magazine Viruses In December 2021, in vitro traces of facilitating infection appeared in the serum of convalescent patients. A 25-year-old American who was infected twice in two months with two different types of SARS-CoV-2, with a more serious infection the second time, was described in October 2020 in scalpel. A higher viral load or a more virulent virus may explain the clinical severity of the second infection, but the authors do not exclude that it may be an antibody-mediated infection.

The risk of triggering facilitative infection in vaccinated populations was a topic of debate in the scientific community during the current vaccine development phase, in early 2020. The researchers wanted to reduce the risk by targeting the SARS-CoV virus spike protein as specifically as -2, so that it remains Neutralizing activity of the antibodies produced is sufficient to avoid facilitating infection. Data from clinical trials of two RNA vaccines from Pfizer-BioNTech and Moderna published in the fall of 2020 do not indicate any cases of infection facilitated by vaccination.

The cases described in the medical literature remain very rare, and such a mechanism has not been observed in SARS-CoV-2 infection or among the vaccinated population. One publication, dated September 2021, differs from the current relative consensus, but refers only to indirect observations that prove nothing and do not convince the immunological community. It has not been taken up by any other study and has only been cited on social networks by vaccines.

Read also COVID-19: The majority of patients in intensive care are not immunized

If vaccinations against Covid-19 or SARS-CoV-2 infections have facilitated and exacerbated subsequent infections, drug surveillance and the scientific community have already observed and documented this, even at low frequency. It doesn’t matter, that’s not the case. On the contrary, all data accumulated in real life on current vaccines show a high level of protection against severe forms of the disease.

In France, data from the Department of Research, Studies, Evaluation and Statistics, which cross-references hospital data to vaccination status data, indicates that vaccinated people are significantly underrepresented among the serious forms: an equal population, they are nine times lower than the unvaccinated. And fourteen times less in critical care than the latter. It is grafted with a booster even lower. This huge gap between vaccinated and unvaccinated between severe or fatal forms of Covid-19 was observed in the United States as of November 2021, but also in Switzerland, Chile or England.

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